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  • 认识敦煌 - 走进莫高窟

    -认识敦煌-

    >> 走近莫高窟 >> 认识敦煌

      敦煌,是位于甘肃省河西走廊最西端的城市,北有北山(马鬃山),南有南山(祁连山),是一个冲积而成的绿洲,由南山流来的古氐置水(今党河)泛滥所造成,绿洲周围多戈壁和沙丘。它的地理位置十分重要,东接中原,西邻新疆,自汉代以来,一直是中原通西域交通要道的“咽喉之地”,是著名的丝绸之路上的重镇。由敦煌出发,向东通过河西走廊去古都长安、洛阳。敦煌西去阳关,沿昆仑山北麓。经鄯善(若羌)、且末、于阗(和田)至莎车,逾葱岭(帕米尔)进入大月氏、安息等国,是为丝路南道;由敦煌出玉门关北行,沿天山南麓,经车师前王庭(吐鲁番)、焉耆、龟兹(库车)、到疏勒(喀什)、越葱岭,进入大宛、康居、大夏,是为丝路北道。敦煌总扼两关,控制着东来西往的商旅。位于丝绸之路上的敦煌,成为东西方贸易的中心和中转站。史书称敦煌是“华戎所交一大都会”,西域商胡与中原汉族商客在这里从事中原的丝绸和瓷器,西域的珍宝,北方的驼马,与当地粮食的交易。与此同时,自汉代中西交通畅通以来,中原文化不断传播到敦煌,在这里深深扎了根。地接西域的敦煌,较早地就接受了发源于印度的佛教文化。西亚、中亚文化随着印度佛教文化的东传,也不断传到了敦煌。中西不同的文化都在这里汇聚、碰撞、交融。著名的敦煌学者季羡林先生指出:“世界上历史悠久、地域广阔、自成体系、影响深远的文化体系只有四个:中国、印度、希腊、伊斯兰,再没有第五个;而这四个文化体系汇流的地方只有一个,就是中国的敦煌和新疆地区,再没有第二个。”季先生的论说充分说明敦煌所处的地理位置在历史上的重要性。

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